Law enforcement professionals are among the few who are authorized by our society to deal with conflict by force when necessary. They are trained to directly confront and apprehend law-breakers who refuse to cooperate with their instructions.
Law enforcement professionals are also ordinary persons with ordinary relationships — in their workplaces, their neighborhoods, their social groups, and their families — in which interpersonal differences and conflicts must be managed by collaborative means.
Sometimes the boundary between these roles is breached. The distinction between resolving conflict by coercion and by collaboration can become blurred. The burden upon law enforcement officials to maintain skills in both forms of conflict resolution, and to apply each when appropriate, is greater than for members of civilian society.
Police officers are advised to register for the Train-the-Professional (Track 3) option. Those with supervisory and management responsibilities may prefer the Train-the-Manager (Track 2) option. Staff development personnel may consider the Train-the-Trainer (Track 1) opportunity.
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Edited by Melissa Zarda. See other bibliographies.
Contributors: Jason Elkhay, Michelle Duranleau
Copyright restriction: The contents of this bibliography may not be placed on other websites, but links from other websites may be directed to this page. Hardcopies of this page may be printed for academic purposes.
- Anderson, Beverly J., Ph.D., (2002). Police Suicide: Understanding Grief & Loss.
Police suicide takes a heavy toll on family and friends that are left by the victim, especially when it is a fellow officer. The daily stress of seeing how cruel humans can be builds up and comes to a breaking point. Early warning signs could be displaced anger taken out on family members. Officers can be better family members with open communication, counseling and not to let the emotional blips develop into clashes and crises.
- Berger, W. B., & Graham, A. P. (July 1998). Suspended students: a practical approach - police practice - column. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article discussed one truancy program in North Miami Beach FL that was a partnership between the school system and the police department. Due to a high truancy rate (25%) the school district and the police department created a program designed to keep students suspended due to truancy from being left alone without adult supervision and commit crime. The program allowed suspended students to remove the suspension from the permanent records if they completed the course. By the end of the year 121 out of 165 students had completed the program and returned to school.
- Boyle, D. (June 1993). Police violence: addressing the issue. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article adresses the issue of police violence and the misperception that policy "brutality" has occurred. The article points out 5 ways that law enforcement administrators can prevent or address police violence. 1) The selection and preselection process 2) Training at the police academy, in the field and at inservice training 3) Evaluations 4) Community relations-educating the public 5) Discipline procedures. By using these methods the police departments can foster better relationships with the communities they serve.
- Burke T.W. ( October 1995). Dispatcher stress - police dispatchers. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article focuses on the stresses faces by police dispatchers. The police dispatcher according to the article is often overlooked because they are not in the field. The factors that contribute to the stress and resulting burnout of police dispatchers are identified. Some of the factors causing burnout are: low position in the department hierarchy; insufficient training; lack of support from officers, supervisors and managers; lack of personal development; low pay. These factors are reviewed in detail and recommendations are provided to help alleviate the stresses of the job.
- Burton, D. U. (Jan 1997). Outside Employment: Guidelines for Law Enforcement Agencies. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article describes the various problems departments face with the need of officers to supplement their salaries with outside work. The article mentions two main reasons that police officers need to supplement their incomes: 1) the budget restraints causing less money able to be allocated to increasing police salaries and 2) the increasing fear by private individuals and business owners and their need for additional security. The article breaks down outside employment into categories such as temporary off-duty, regular off-duty, and part-time. The article goes on to mention the difficulties that agencies have in regulating aspects of outside employment such as pay and working conditions.
- Coderoni, G. R. (November 2002). The relationship between multicultural training for police and effective law enforcement - perspective. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article discusses the need for police departments and law enforcement agencies to be sensitive to the cultural diversity in their jurisdictions. Civil disorder caused by miscommunication between law enforcement and the public, can be controlled by more effective understanding and communication. The negative and positive effects of better communication and understanding are discussed as well as the law enforcement response to civil disorder. Some emphasis is placed on cultural awareness and training of law enforcement officers to prevent misunderstandings from escalating into civil disorder.
- Conditt, J. H, Jr. (Nov 2001). Institutional Integrity: The four Elements of Self-Policing. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article deals with the ability of police departments to discipline the officers within their ranks. The problems and roadblocks that police departments encounter in the self-policing process such as contractual limitations derived from collective bargaining agreements are mentioned. The article describes four common points all disciplinary programs share. Those points are: establishing a code of conduct, internal investigations, adjudicating process, and reporting on the disciplinary process. Each of these points and their importance are described in detail.
- Cooley, J. (Feb 2000). HIV/AIDS in law enforcement "what-if" scenarios. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article discusses the problems officers and agencies face in dealing with the spread of HIV/AIDS. A large problem is the reactions that officers have when confronted with HIV/AIDS positive suspects. Other public concerns raised in the article are of information confidentiality. Additionally, the article discusses legal issues that can arise from improper handling of HIV/AIDS positive suspects. Finally the article speaks to some what-if scenarios such as officers becoming infected on the job or coming in contact with infected individuals and refusing to assist.
- Cooper, C. (Feb 2000). Training patrol officers to mediate disputes. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article details the use of mediation by law enforcement officers and its role in preventing simple disputes from escalating to confrontations requiring the parties involved being arrested. According to the article the use of mediation (at the time of this writing, 2000) is so new in law enforcement that there is not much data to back up its effectiveness. The article gives a general explanation of when mediation is useful and when not appropriate. How to apply mediation is also discussed along with how to prepare officers to mediate.
- Couper, D. C. (March 1994). Seven seeds for policing. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article is the reprint of a speech given by David C Cooper. Mr. Cooper discusses what he calls "seven seeds of policing." The "seeds" are: Leadership, Knowledge, Creativity, Problem Solving, Diversity, Force Control, and Community Policing. The speaker describes these seeds in detail. These seeds are felt to be the beginings of the vision for tomorrow's police leaders and how they can help avoid problems associated with law enforcement.
- De Jong, D. (March 1994). Civil disorder: preparing for the worst. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article discusses the need for law enforcement agencies to be prepared for civil unrest. The comparisons made are of the riots of South Central Los Angeles in 1992 and the Miami, FL riots in 1980. From analyzing both incidents a seven part pattern was identified. 1) an incident that sparks the unrest. 2) Small violent groups begin committing random crimes 3) Same group begin to commit acts of arson and looting 4)More citizens become involved and there is an increase in looting and arson 5) Widespread acts of violence, looting and arson exceed the ability of law enforcement to keep control. 6) atmosphere becomes "carnival-like" with many segments of the community joining in. 7)Finally activities slow with an influx of police resources.
- Evenrud, L. A. (March 1995). Facing the reality of gangs in parks: an inter-agency response - one program in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Parks and Recreation.
This article deals with the rising instance of gang activity in public recreation areas in Minneapolis Minnesota. The article details one instance where the public worked in concert with law enforcement officials over a period of several months to rid a local park of gang activity and narcotics trafficking. The article also mentions how the parks department and other local agencies have created programs designed to keep youth away from gangs and get them involved with the community.
- Finn, P. (August, 1997). Reducing stress: an organization-centered approach. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article deals with the stresses placed on law enforcement officers, their cause and what can be done to attempt to alleviate those stresses. There are five general categories that stress can be placed into. 1) Issues in personal life 2) Pressures of law enforcement work 3) The general attitude of the general public toward police work and officers 4) The operation of the criminal justice system 5) The law enforcement organization itself. The article also discusses how police dapartments can address these stresses and make changes.
- Gardner, G. W. (Nov 1998). Surviving the street: officer safety and survival techniques- reviews. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This book review discusses the situations patrol officers encounter while on duty. Examples of fatalities begin the chapters with a summary and survival checklist at the end of each chapter. The book discusses the physical and mental effects of the dangers of police work along with what an officer should do when confronted with various emergency situations while off duty. In conclusion explaination is given on how proper training may have prevented many of the deaths reviewed in the book.
- Gerlach, Peter K., MSW, (2006). How Law-enforcement Professionals Can Help Reduce and Prevent Family Stress and Divorce. (pp. 1-13)
Police officers face much stress in the execution of their jobs. However there is a cycle that exists of work stress and the inability to share the details of their day with their partner. As a result the partner faces the stress of not knowing. The stress stretches to all facets of their family life, sometimes, resulting in divorce. A regiment of counseling, awareness of stress and family involvement can circumvent neglect, abuse or divorce.
- Glensor, R. W., Peak, G. (July 1996). Implementing change: community-oriented policing and problem solving. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article discusses the public's perception of the prevalence of crime in their neighborhoods and in the areas near where they live. The author also explains how the police departments can change the ways in which they protect their citizens and involve the community to enlist the public's help in protecting themselves. Community Oriented Policing and Problem Solving (COPPS) is the log-term strategy to involve the community and give them a more proactive experience in their own protection. The author identifies four points of COPPS that improve it's successful implementation: Leadership and Management, Organizational Culture, Field Operations, and External Relationships.
- Lathrop, S. W. (Oct 2000). Reviewing use of force a systematic approach - law enforcement agencies. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article deals with the use of force to control a situation and the degree to which agencies are forced to place controls and guidelines on the use of force. The example cited in the article is the approach to the use of force by the state of Wisconsin and their Disturbance Resolution Model. This model covers three parts for the officers to use to deal with conflict and determine to what degree the use of force is warranted. According to the article the first part of the model deals with the period of time before of conflict begins. This is where officers analyze if force may be warranted. The second part of the model deals with what is happening during the conflict. Here the officers can assess intervention options and the Force Continuum, which is comprised of different levels of severity. The final part of the model is the follow through. This is after the use of force is applied to subdue the combative individual. The officer makes sure any medical attention is given and procedures such as personal searches and transporting the subject are followed correctly.
- Mahaney, P. (July 2000). Management Training for Police Supervisors. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article discusses the financial problems associated with providing management training to mid and senior level supervising officers. Due to the cost of providing the training, many state and local agencies have forgone the important task of training their supervisors. The article gives an example of the Alabama Department of Public Safety (DPS) and how they were able to provide this training at a fraction of the standard training cost.
- McKay, B., & Paris, B. (Nov 1998). Forging a police-probation alliance. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article deals with the historic lack of communication between the police departments and the probation department. Police departments have made many inroads to foster greater cooperation between themselves and community and religious groups but have lacked widespread cooperation with the probation departments. One example of a productive relationship between the two departments is in Boston MA. By working together the departments were able to develop an effective gang program. The article mentions other productive police/probation department relationships and examines why this cooperation hasn't been employed in the past.
- Payne, D. M. (August 1993). Ethics in police decision making. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article deals with the idea of the institutionalizing a code of ethics in police departments. While police departments do have codes of ethics, making them part of the daily life is something different. How can police managers ingrain the code of ethics into officers? The article proposes a few suggestions. Start by developing the code and an ethics committee. Much like in public and private corporations ethics must play an important part in the organization. Offering ethics training is another way to keep the emphasis in the forefront and help officers make it a part of their work.
- Pendleton, M. R., & Thompson, H. L. (July 2000). The criminal career of park and recreation hotspots - prevention of crime in parks. Parks & Recreation.
This article discusses the rise of crime in public parks and the eventual retaking of the park from the criminal element. The article mentions the development of criminal hotspots and breaks this down into four stages. The first stage is Onset: the threat of disorder and the rise of fear. The second stage is Diversification and Escalation: whose park is it. The third stage is Risk and danger: the shared meaning of a park hotspot. The final stage is assuming guardanship: taking back the park.
- Pinizzotto, A. J. (March 1995). Killed in the line of duty: procedural and training issues. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article discusses the results of a three year FBI study on officers killed on duty as a result of a felony. The study focused on certain circumstances in an effort to develop training techniques that may help law enforcement avoid officer fatalities. The article also discusses ways to increase officer safety and deal with situations more effectively than they otherwise may have. Discussed in the article are the use of force, training issues, and supervising for safety.
- Rush, B.,& Fortis, J. (May1999). Symposium - police brutality - statistical data included. Insight on the News.
This article begins by asking the question "Should Washington step in to curb police brutality in the states?" The author answers this question Yes. The article gives a number of high profile examples of police brutality to illustrate why there should be some federal oversight of police brutality. The author uses the example of the Department of Justice investigation into the City of Pittsburgh. An agreement between the DOJ and the city resulted in a variety of measures designed to help city more effectively manage its police force.
- Schofield, D. L. (June 1995). Freedom of religion and law enforcement employment: recent court decisions, The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article discusses the problems law enforcement experiences in trying to be considerate the religious beliefs of police officers and limit how their beliefs conflict with their duties. The article also mentions specific instances where officers brought religious rights complaints against police agencies. Other subjects covered are placing limitations on promoting religious beliefs and enforcing scheduling even when it conflicts with an individual's religious beliefs. In each instance examples are cited that mention how the agency effectively dealt with the legal challenge to discipline decision handed to the officer in question.
- Sheehan, D. C., & Van Hasselt, V. B. (Sept 2003). Identifying law enforcement stress reactions early. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article deals with the large and small stresses that can take a toll on the psychological well being of law enforcement officers. There are many stressors that officers can come into contact with such as critical incidents, long periods away from home, hostage rescue, etc… that can over time wear on officers causing reduced productivity and other negative consequences. The article also discusses the use of stress management to help officers process incidents and eliminate the negative responses to stress such as substance abuse. The article mentions one method of stress management used by the FBI, which identifies three steps: Understanding, Recognizing, Coping.
- Sherwood, C. W. (August 1998). Security for a major event. The FBI law Enforcement Bulletin
This article discusses the logistics of providing security for a major event, in particular the Special Olympics that were held in New Haven CT. Approximately 650,000 spectators and 7,000 athletes from all over the world attended this particular event. The event took place over many days and in many sites including Yale University, Southern Connecticut State University and the University of New Haven. Some of the problems the event security organizers encountered were coordinating the various state and federal agencies and the communication of objectives to all of the personnel involved. In order to plan appropriately the organizers began the process 2 years before the opening of the games. The article goes on to detail aspects of planning such as sharing and communication of intelligence and other information, allocating resources, and the creation of a handbook that outlines guidelines and expectations for all law enforcement and security personnel.
- Torok, W. C., & Trump, K. S. (May 1994). Gang intervention: police and school collaboration. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article deals with the rising tide of gang activity in small and large communities. The author points out that since it takes time for most police departments to recognize the existence of gangs by the time action is taken the gangs are well established. This is the experience of the Clevelend Police Dpartment. Their original idea was to set up youth and gang units. While initially effective, these units would need to be adapted for long-term effectiveness. The city instituted school youth gang units to stop the problem at its source. The cooperation betewwn the schools and the police department became an effective alliance and served to solve crimes quicker and often prevent it from happening.
- Tuttle, J.P. (May 1993). A training "system" for undercover teams - undercover policemen- police practices. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article deals with the training for undercover teams and the need to have highly trained people available to staff these teams. The example given is of undercover drug teams in the State of Michigan. Due to the nature and stresses of undercover drug work departments need to rotate team members which can cause staff numbers to fall when there aren't enough qualified officers available. To solve the problem local and state agencies have created a program of multijurisdictional teams along with a training program. This training program is designed to speed up the on the job training formerly relied upon as the only training tool
for undercover officers.
- Van Hasslet, V. B., & Romano, S. J. (Feb 2004). A vital tool in crisis negotiation skills training - role-playing. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article discusses the importance of role-playing to train crisis negotiation teams and how the lack of training can cause a bad situation to become worse. Role-playing is important because it can prepare officers to deal with a variety of problems they may face. The role-playing can take many forms a few of those forms are: domestic/ family or workplace scenarios. Other types are longer duration hostage
Situations 30min to 1 hour. A third is several hours in length, a scenario where several hostages are taken, on a school bus for example.
- Vecchi, G.M. (May 2002). Hostage/barricade management: a hidden conflict within law enforcement. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article discusses how to minimize conflict between crisis teams. In this article the Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) and the Crisis Negotiation Team (CNT) are used as an example of conflict that can occur. The basic environment and the reasons for lack of cooperation are discussed. The solution to the barricades between teams are given in a three step process: 1) Fostering Relationships 2 )Set The Stage For Collaboration 3) Using Collaboration and Intrateam/Interteam Negotiation. The role of the on-scene commander (OSC) and their importance is also discussed in detail. This is the individual that can strike a balance and improve the cooperation between the SWAT and CNT and maximize their effectiveness during a crisis situation.
- Weitzel, T.Q. (November 2004). Managing the problem employee: a road map for success. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article discusses the ways a manager can spot and deal with a problem employee. Sometimes the problems are not with the employee but the supervisor themselves. In either case the problem needs to be identified and dealt with. In the case of the problem employee the manager must be prepared to deal with the problems. The article gives some guidance for the manager beginning with wrong approaches to effectively dealing with a problem employee. The first step is to deal with the issue, rather than avoiding the employee, in order to come to some resolution. The article goes on to detail steps the supervisor can take to analyze the problem and detail the employee's performance. The manager also needs to meet with the employee to review performance, review expectations and address specific issues. Here is where the supervisor can detail what is going well and not going well but also get feedback from the employee.
- Williams, G. T. (Oct 1999). Reluctance to Use Deadly Force. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article deals with the ability of police officers to use deadly force when confronted with a life or death situation. The article mentions the various stages that officers go through after using deadly force such as the exhilaration stage, the remorse stage, and the rationalization and acceptance stage. Also discussed is the ways in which officers can be conditioned to use the appropriate force and not hesitate when the need arises.
- Wind, B. A. (Oct 1995). A guide to crisis negotiations - police. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
This article deals with crisis negotiation, training and the methods used to diffuse crisis situations. The crisis negotiator is usually a specially trained individual or team of individuals that can be dispatched if a crisis such as a hostage situation develops. There are different types of incidents the crisis team may encounter. Those are hostage takings, barricade situations, and suicide attempts. Each crisis brings its own stresses and complications that the crisis negotiator(s) must be prepared to deal with.