Conflict between the sexes, as well as between/among women and between/among men, has been observed, dissected, and debated for millenia. Perhaps no subject is of greater popular interest, nor has spawned more literature, than male-female, male-male, and female-female relationships.
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Ana M. Cavanaugh, Kirsten Elliot, Maria Angarita
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- Anderson, S. (Sept 2000). Crossing the lines: women’s organizations in conflict resolutions. Development, 43(3), 34-39.
The author of this article contends that community-based women’s organizations are playing a key role in rebuilding post-conflict societies, as well as in the process of conflict resolution. The author asserts that while women’s involvement in the peacemaking process is confronting gender stereotypes, there is a danger that women’s involvement may also help to maintain such stereotypes that exist.
- Aylor, B., & Dainton, M. (May 2004). Biological sex and psychological gender as predictors of routine and strategic relational maintenance. Sex Roles, 50(9/10), 689-697.
This article details a study focused on two areas of research: one area differentiates between everyday and strategic relational maintenance and conflict management, and the other area focuses on biological sex and psychological gender as indicators of communication styles. Specifically, the researchers sought to identify the impact of gender differences through this study. Results showed, among other things, that femininity yields more common use of advice, conflict management and openness than masculinity yields.
- Bannon, I., Tsjeard, B., & Frerks, G. (2004). Gender, Conflict, and Development. Virginia: World Bank Publications.
The book highlights the gender dimensions of conflict, organized around major relevant themes such as female combatants, sexual violence, formal and informal peace processes, the legal framework, work, the rehabilitation of social services and community-driven development. And for each theme it analyzes how conflict changes gender roles and the policy options that might be considered to build on positive aspects while minimizing adverse changes. The suggested policy options and approaches aim to take advantage of the opportunity afforded by violent conflict to encourage change and build more inclusive and gender balanced social, economic and political relations in post-conflict societies. The book concludes by identifying some of the remaining challenges and themes that require additional analysis and research.
- Baril,G. L., Korabik, K., & Watson, C. (1993). Managers' Conflict Management style and Leadership Effectiveness: The Moderating effects of Gender. Sex Roles: A Journal Research.
As more and more women have moved into decision-making positions in organizations, the issue of whether there are gender differences in the ability to manage effectively has become an important concern. Conflict management skills are an integral part of leadership effectiveness and "perceptions of how females handle crisis and conflict often are cited as blocks to the female manager's ascent to the executive suite". Yet practically no research has been carried out on the types of strategies that male and female managers use in real conflict situations or on their effectiveness in dealing with such situations. Article will examine gender differences in conflict management and to relate them to leadership effectiveness.
- Becker-Beck, U. (June 2001). Methods for diagnosing interaction strategies: an application to group interaction in conflict situations. Small Group Research, 32(3), 259-282.
This article presents a conceptual framework for strategies in conflict interactions and methods of analysis for group interaction in conflict situations. Further, it details a study of several groups in which gender dimensions and traditional and modern attitudes toward the male and female gender role in conflict interactions were directly considered. An analysis of the study yielded a more prominent polarization of the gender dimension aspect.
- Brahnam, S. D., Margavio, T. M., Hignite, M. A., Barrier, T. B., & Chin, J. M. (2005). A gender-based categorization for conflict resolution. The Journal of Management Development, 24(3), 197-208.
This article addresses a study that was designed to research assumptions that exist regarding the relationship between gender and conflict resolution, as well as compare conflict resolution strategies of men and women majoring in the area of information systems in order to determine if gender-based differences exist. Results of the study yielded that women are more likely to employ a collaborative conflict resolution style, whereas men are more likely to avoid conflict.
- Brewer, N., Mitchell, P., & Weber, N. (2002). Gender role, organizational status, and conflict management styles. International Journal of Conflict Management, 13(1), 78-94.
This article addresses a study that examined the relationship among biological sex, gender role, organizational status, and conflict management behavior of men and women in three similar organizations. The study predicted, after controlling for the effects of biological sex, that individuals in masculine roles would emerge higher on a dominating conflict management style, feminine roles would emerge higher on an avoiding style and androgynous roles would emerge higher on an integrated style.
- Burley, K. A. (Feb 1994). Gender differences and similarities in coping responses to anticipated work-family conflict. Psychological Report, 74(1), 115-123.
This article reports on a study that examined the relationships among gender, coping and anticipated work-family conflict of men and women entering their careers. Specifically, the study examined potential gender differences with respect to work-family conflict and coping mechanisms, as well as the role these coping processes may play in resolving the relationship between gender and work-family conflict. Study results yielded differences between genders with respect to strategies used to manage work-family conflict.
- Buss, D. M. (1989). Conflict Between the Sexes: Strategic Interference and the Evocation of Anger and Upset. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 735-747.
Conflict is predicted to occur whenever the reproductive strategy adopted by one sex interferes with that adopted by the opposite sex. This article will examine three empirical study hypotheses. These studies provide modest support to the strategic conflict model and implicate the negative emotions of anger and upset as mechanisms that alert men and women to strategic interference.
- Cavanagh, S. J. (1991). The Conflict Management Style of Staff Nurses and Nurse Managers. Journal of Advance Nursing, 16, 1254-60.
Conflict is recognized as being a common occurrence in both everyday personal and professional nursing life, and it is now generally agreed that conflict can be both problematic and potentially beneficial to both individuals and organizations. There is a large amount of anecdotal and narrative literature about the nature and sources of conflict which fails to reflect upon the complexities and theoretical perspectives that exist. There are also few research studies which examine the nature of nursing conflict and how conflict is managed by nurses in the workplace. This article presents a review of some aspects of conflict and its management and specifically investigates the conflict management style of staff nurse managers in the hospital setting. The results suggest that avoidance is the most commonly used conflict management strategy, with competition being the least favored.
- Chesler, P. (2003). Woman’s Inhumanity to Woman. California: Plume.
The author explores the "shadow side" of sisterhood: women treating each other badly. How could her own mother have been so mean to her? How could someone who "borrowed" published ideas from her not acknowledge her or say "thank you"? In this treatise on breaking the "cycle of cruelty" between women, the author addresses why sisters fight, why some women prefer to work for men rather than for women, and other highly subjective cases of woman/woman cruelty. From the "demented Demeters" and "murderous Electras" of Greek mythology to modern-day Mommie Dearest, Chesler warns, mothers and daughters are doomed. Whether they acknowledge their mothers' viciousness, as Chesler does, or whether they're "unconscious" and suffer "amnesia" about the hurt, she says, the patterns are set.
- DeLaat, J. (1999). Gender in the Workplace : A Case Study Approach. California: SAGE Publications.
While women have made progress toward equality in the workplace, gender issues continue to surface in today’s work environment. How are these issues best confronted? This brief collection of cases is designed to help the reader gain a hands-on understanding of gender issues in the workplace and to provide the necessary tools to handle those issues. Based on actual legal cases, nationally reported incidents, and personal interviews, the case studies will address the range and types of gender issues in the workplace including: Gender stereotypes about work; Gender discrimination in the workplace; Balancing work and family responsibilities; Sexual harassment issues.
- Demir, A., & Tezer, E. (2001). Conflict Behaviors Toward Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Peers Among Male and Female Late Adolescents. Health & Fitness.
Differences between males and females in regard to conflict behaviors toward same-sex and opposite-sex peers were examined in a sample of 501 undergraduate university students (326 males, 175 females). They completed a one-page questionnaire containing the theoretical definitions of five conflict behaviors identified by Thomas (1976): competing, avoiding, accommodating, compromising, and collaborating. Students were asked to rate the extent to which they exhibit each of these conflict behaviors, on a 5-point Likert-type scale, separately for same-sex and opposite-sex peers. Results revealed that males reported more competing behavior toward same-sex peers than toward opposite-sex peers, and more avoiding behavior toward opposite-sex peers than toward same-sex peers. Males, compared to females, reported more accommodating behavior toward both same-sex and opposite-sex peers. These findings support the view that preferences regarding conflict behaviors are different for males and females, particularly as exhibi ted toward same-sex and opposite-sex peers.
- Dillof, M. (2000). Awakening with the Enemy: The Origin and End of Male/Female Conflict. New York: Philosophy Clinic Press.
The author rejects the problem-solving approach to life's difficulties endemic to self-help books and radio psychologists. He explains why the "men are from Mars, women from Venus approach to relationships" ultimately fails, and why no new arrangement of male and female can be significantly better. The alternative? Rather than seeking to integrate the erotic polarities, the author explains how a couple can "awaken" from them. When - due to insight - their former "dance" together evaporates, they have "nothing between them anymore." This sounds negative, but it is really positive. "Nothing between," means that nothing is separating them from each other. Consequently, they are one! Awakening with the Enemy is a guide to using male/female conflict as a route to this new level of unity, one that few people even know exists.
- Dimarco, H. (2005). Mean Girls All Grown Up: Surviving Catty and Conniving Women. New York: Revell.
The author offers some good and some arguable ideas for navigating through the relationships of women. She bases her advice on her own experiences, scripture, and spiritual heavyweights such as Richard Foster in a format that is younger-woman friendly. The main goal, DiMarco believes, is to get the mean girl to leave us alone. To do this, she first helps us understand the mean girl's motivations. Does she perceive us as a rival? Does she believe we are somehow better than her? Does she gossip about us? If so, why?
- Douglas, T. (2005). Managing Conflict in a Female Dominated Workplace.
Article will review women’s greatest challenge in the workplace which is trying to break through the ‘glass ceiling’ and be treated equal to their male counterparts. While many would argue that a glass still exists, women have made tremendous strides in the past two decades. Article will review significant information on study conflict in the workplace with women. How women will expect different things from their co-workers than men, which results in a completely different approach to dealing with conflict.
- Forte, P. S. (1997). The High Cost of Conflict: An Article from: Nursing Economics. New Jersey: Jannetti Publications, Inc.
Conflict is inevitable, especially in highly stressed environments. Clinical environments marked by nurse-physician conflict (and nurse withdrawal related to conflict avoidance) have been proven to be counterproductive to patients. Clinical environments with nurse-physician professional collegiality and respectful communication show decreased patient morbidity and mortality, thus enhancing outcomes. The growth of managed care, and the organizational turmoil associated with rapid change, makes it imperative to structure the health care environment so that conflict can be dealt with in a safe and healthy manner Professional health care education programs and employers have a responsibility to provide interactive opportunities for multidisciplinary audiences through which conflict management skills can be learned and truly change the interpersonal environment. Professionals must be free to focus their energy on the needs of the patient, not on staff difficulties.
- Gobi, A., & Moore, D. (1995). Role Conflict and Perceptions of Gender Roles. A Journal of Research, 32.
Research indicates that employed women are over committed and find combining work and family conflicts stress. They experience role conflict as a result of performing diverse social roles that demand incompatible behaviors. The source of women’s role conflict is insufficient time to perform all the tasks expected of them and meet all their obligations especially when they are married and mothers of small children when their paid work demands long, inflexible hours.
- Golan, G. (2004). The role of women in conflict resolution. Palestine – Israel Journal of Politics, Economics & Culture, 11(2), 92-96.
This article presents the author’s views regarding women’s roles in conflict resolution, paying particular attention to the current Palestinian-Israeli conflict that is taking place in the Middle East. The author also examines the impact that conflict situations have on women, the effect that a militaristic climate has on gender relations in society, and the rights that women have in becoming part of the peacemaking process.
- Gwartney-Gibbs, P. A. & Lach, D. H. (1994). Gender and workplace dispute resolution: a conceptual and theoretical model. Law & Society Review, 28(2), 265-297.
This article provides a conceptual and theoretical model for understanding how workplace dispute resolution contributes to gender differences in employment. The model for understanding gender differences in workplace disputes includes behavioral and structural components such as individual choice, social roles, and employment experience differences. The model suggests that men and women experience different types of workplace disputes and that dispute resolution methods vary for the different genders.
- Ha, S. (2002). Gender differences in organizational conflict in Korean organizations. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, 63(2-B), 1074.
The research examines the gender differences in conflict experiences. Specifically investigate the conflict and the relation with job security, unfairness reward and gender discrimination. The results of MANOVA reported that women have higher levels associated to relationship conflicts, compare to the men who present higher levels of relation with task conflicts.
- Heim, P, & Murphy, S. (2001) In the Company of Women: Turning Workplace Conflict into Powerful Alliances. New York: Tarcher.
Now that women own nearly 50% of all businesses, the authors’ reason, women's worst enemies at work are just as likely to be other women. To support their thesis, the authors both business consultants address differences between women's and men's behaviors. Declaring that women should be more conscious of their reaction if other women try to undermine a promotion or honor coming their way, they suggest, "that's the price we have to pay for the strong alliances we make with other women." As you read the book you will be asking: Why women have an incredible memory for hurts and injustices; why women can be so 'catty' amongst themselves; why women can talk so intimately and so easily with each other and with men This book will help the women in her professional role as well as the role of a daughter, a sister and a friend. It is extremely insightful and provides real-life examples and effective suggestions on how to create and sustain positive relationships with women.
- Hsu, B. F., & Liu, N. C. (2003). Gender, gender-role attitudes, and work-family conflict: moderating effects of supervisory support. Department of Business Administration, National Yunlin University of Science & Technology and National Central University Institute of Human Resource Management.
This paper details a Taiwanese study of high-tech workers from double-income families with at least one child, which explored the relationships among gender, gender-role attitudes and work-family conflict. Study results yielded that gender-role attitudes, as opposed to gender itself, played a significant role in influencing work-family conflict. In addition, supervisory support was not found to have a significant effect on gender, gender-role attitudes and work-family conflict.
- Jacobs, S., Jacobson, R., & Marchbank, J. (2000). States of Conflict: Gender, Violence and Resistance. England: Zed Books.
The book will look in a non-simplistic way, between conflicts at the international, national, community, and household levels. It recognizes the enduring relevance of factors such as the exclusion of women from the public sphere and militarized constructions of masculinity to present-day examples of gendered violence. At the same time, it raises awkward questions about women's agency in these contexts.
- Klenke, K. (2003). Gender influences in decision-making processes in top management teams. Management Decision, 41(10), 1024.
This article describes a model that examines gender related influences and hypothesizes on the effect of gender in relation to the decision making process within top management teams. Furthermore, the author suggests that there are four particular areas – i.e. power, political savvy, conflict management and trust that account for differences in decision making between men and women executives, rather than gender in isolation. Cooperative and competitive conflict management styles are considered.
- Luhaorg, H., & Zivian, M. T. (1995). Gender Role Conflict: The Interaction of gender, Gender role, and Occupation. Sex Roles: A Journal Research.
This article will look at the study which investigates the general notion that expectations associated with being in a particular situation (either a predominantly male or female occupation) interact with particular individual traits (either a predominantly masculine or feminine gender role) to produce differences in the degree of gender role conflict experienced by an individual. Specifically, the study tested the hypothesis that individuals whose gender role and occupation did not coincide (i.e., those with primarily feminine gender roles in predominantly male occupations or primarily masculine gender roles in predominantly female occupations) would experience more gender role conflict than individuals whose gender role and occupation coincided.
- Mackey, R.A, & O’Brien, B. (1998). Marital conflict management: gender and ethnic differences. Social Work, 3 (2), 128-141.
Explore spouses from 60 ethnically diverse that having been together for more than 20 years. And how couples manage the conflict. The method used looks for patterns that manage conflict and compare three stages of the relation: the early years, child rearing and the empty nest years. Results describes that in the rearing year women used more confrontational approach while men tried to avoid it.
- Mann, L. (October 1994). Resolving gender conflict in the workplace: consensual and nonconsensual conduct. Modrall, Sperling, Roehl, Harris & Sisk, P.A.
This article discusses gender conflict situations occurring in the workplace and how they may give rise to liability for employers, particularly given Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibiting sexual harassment in the workplace. Particular topics examined as they relate to gender and workplace conflict include dating and on the job relationships, past practice issues, same sex relationships on the job, profanity and obscenity, after hour conduct, and flirtation and prior sexual conduct.
- Mazurana, D., Raven-Roberts, A., & Parpart, J. (2005). Gender, conflict, and peacekeeping. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
This book provides an analysis of the role of gender in post-cold war conflicts and of post-cold war peacekeeping efforts. This book explores how gender has become a central factor in shaping current thinking about the causes and consequences of armed conflict, complex emergencies and reconstruction. Further, the author provides insights for future peacekeeping and humanitarian missions.
- Menkel-Meadow, C. (October 2000). Teaching about gender and negotiation: sex, truths, and videotape. Negotiation Journal, 16(4), 357-375.
This author reviews the history of theory development on gender and negotiation, and suggests that the differing opinions on the topic provide opportunities for learning. Additionally, the author provides recommendations and teaching strategies on how to make the subject of gender integral to the negotiation class. One particular teaching strategy of focus is the use of videotape, to further illustrate that gender does play a role in negotiation.
- Miller, L. (1996). Gender detente: soldiers managing conflict in the United States Army. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences, 57 (1-A), 0454.
The dissertation discuss why most women from the Army, do not find representative among feminist activists. And confirm that position when women would no volunteer for armed combat. Additionally the research explore sexual and gender harassment, where army women ignore minor offenses and sometimes desexualize the entire environment, while they can improve the job skills and build a better soldier.
- Mizrahi, R. (May 2004). “Hostility to the presence of women”: why women undermine each other in the workplace and he consequences for Title VII. The Yale Law Journal, 113(7), 1579-1621.
This article examines instances of female-on-female harassment between women in the workplace, as well as the reasons why women are undermining each other to create a hostile, conflict-laden work environment. The author argues that this type of conflict is often created by sex segregation and discrimination in the workplace and looks at the role of like-gender conflict as a barrier to women’s advancement in the workplace.
- Moore, D. (1995). Role Conflict: Not only for Women? A comparative analysis of 5 Nations. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 36.
This research deals with three issues. First, it focuses on the influence of burdens at home and at work on the creation of role conflict. Second, it examines whether in the 1990s men are still "spared" feelings of role conflict, and third, it asks whether the concept of role conflict applies to women who work in the same occupation (university professors) in culturally and industrially diverse societies.
- Moser, C. O., & Clark, F. C. (November 2001). Gender, conflict, and building sustainable peace: recent lessons from Latin America.
This article details the neglect of gender analysis related to the impact of Latin American experiences of conflict, peace negotiations and other efforts at building sustainable peace over the past three decades. The article details issues that were raised in a workshop held in Bogotá, Colombia, entitled “Latin American Experiences of Gender, Conflict, and Building Sustainable Peace”. Additionally, the author provides ideas and suggestions for individuals working in the fields of conflict analysis and resolution.
- Ramon, A. (2003). Exploring gender’s influence on observer’s judgments of workplace conflicts. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, 64(6-B), 2970.
The investigation purpose was predicted that feminine stereotypes, such as emotionality, might activated in relationship conflict, while masculine stereotypes such as competence, might activated in task conflict. Thought out the study, the results show that people may think in gender conflict and influence their judgments about the participants of the conflict.
- Ruffin, F. A. (June-August 2004). Women as peacemakers. UN Chronicle, 41(2), 13-14.
This article gives an account of the United Nations’ support of women’s roles and involvement in the international peacekeeping process. Specifically, the article addresses women’s decision-making roles in dispute resolution and prevention, U.N. policy formulation regarding the development of gender-responsive approaches, a commitment to social transformation, and women’s rights to education, career and political involvement.
- Segalla, R. (1996). Shame proneness and its relationship to gender role conflict/stress and male expectations of, and attitudes toward, professional psychological help. Dissertation Abstracts international: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, 56(11-B), 6446
Thought out the socialization process men grow to be emotionally restricted, strong, independent, fearless, rational, competitive, aggressive, invulnerable and in control. However inside the psychotherapy men are allow to express feeling, fears, and vulnerability. The purpose of the study was the relation between those shame-proneness (emotions restricted) and the expectations inside psychotherapy. The statistical analyses show a significant relation between the shame-proneness and the gender conflict.
- Snavely, B. K. (1993). Managing Conflict over the Perceived Progress of Working Women – in Business. Business Horizons, 2.
Despite perceptions that working women have progressed and that working men have become more egalitarian, the war between the sexes is nowhere near resolution. There is no reason to expect the battles staged on the home front, the social front, the governmental front, the economic front or the work front are becoming fewer or more quickly resolved. Time and energy spent addressing male-female conflict seem destined to remain a significant managerial role. One reason for the conflict stems from the variance in perceptions that working men and women are likely to develop when they examine reports on women’s progress. This dissonant findings from various studies contribute to a wide range of conclusions about women’s progress in the working women.
- Stamato, L. (February 2000). Dispute resolution and the glass ceiling: ending sexual discrimination at the top. Dispute Resolution Journal, 55(1).
This article illustrates how the implementation of alternative dispute resolution programs can promote constructive employment practices and eliminate harmful practices, particularly as they relate to women’s issues. In order to illustrate the benefits of ADR programs, the author uses two high-profile cases involving women executives who attempted to raise the “glass ceiling”.
- Tanenbaum, L. (2003). Catfight: Rivalries Among Women—From Diets to Dating, from the Boardroom to the Delivery Room. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.
The author branches out, taking on adult women and their struggles to look prettier, land better boyfriends or husbands, be more popular with co-workers and be considered better mothers than other women, sisterhood be damned. Although Tanenbaum provides the latest in academic research, she also includes an entertaining mix of examples from pop culture, newspaper and magazine articles and original fieldwork. She makes the subject personal, sharing her own frustrations with breast feeding, office gossip and living with a body that doesn't match contemporary beauty norms.
- Valentine, P.E. (1995). Management of Conflict: Do Nurses/Women handle it differently?. Journal of Advance Nursing, 22, 142-9.
Conflict management has been considered an essential aspect of organizational life. Initially, conflict was to be avoided at all costs, but more recently conflict has been considered important for organizational development. This article uses a case study of conflict management of nurse educators as a basis for contrast with the conflict managing strategies of other women, staff nurses and nurse managers. Article will also review other studies which found that women and nurses tend to handle conflict using compromise and avoidance, with competition used the least often. Several implications are discussed based on the premise that organizational studies of conflict management that explain men’s behavior do not necessarily explain women’s (nurses’) behavior.
- Valentine, S., & Godkin, L. (2000). Supervisor gender, leadership style, and perceived job design. Women in Management Review, 15(3), 117.
This article explores the relationship between supervisor gender and perceived job design. One area of focus is conflict management as it relates to gender and leadership. The author explains that women have been found to be less competitive in conflict management situations than men, and offers that these qualities have allowed women to become more effective mentors and leaders because of the support they provide to their co-workers and subordinates.
- White, M. B. (1996). A Peace Plan for the Gender Wars – Use a Gendergram to find the covert Beliefs that Fuel Conflict. Psychology Today.
Gender relations in contemporary society present a seemingly paradoxical picture. On one hand, we are told that women and men are rapidly becoming equal partners at home and in the workplace. With women and men moving into each other’s traditional spheres, it would seem logical that we would finally be able to understand each other’s experiences. The article will examine the different roles and the cross over to each gender’s normal sphere and the conflict that can arise. The use of the gendergram which will help readers uncover the hidden beliefs that each gender side struggles each day.
- Williams, J. (2000). Unbending gender: why family and work conflict and what to do about it. New York: Oxford University Press.
This author outlines a vision for workplaces, one that is focused on the needs of families and recognition of the value of family work. The author argues that workplaces are designed around men in ways that discriminate against women, and that the work-family system that results is bad for men, worse for women and worst for the children involved. This book introduces a concept that places class, race and gender conflicts among women at the forefront.